1. Short title and commencement.- (1) This Act may be called the Railways Act, 1989.
(2) It shall come into force on such date  as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint:
Provided that different dates may be appointed for different provisions of this Act, and any reference in any such provision to the commencement of this Act shall be construed as a reference to the coming into force of that provision.
2. Definitions.- In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,-
(1) authorized means authorized by a railway adminstration;
(2) carriage means the carriage of passengers of goods by a railway administration;
(3) Claims Tribunal means the railway Claims Tribunal established under section 3 of the Railway Claims Tribunal Act, 1987 (54 of 1987)
(4) classification means the classification of commodities made under section 31 for the purpose of determining the rates to be charged for carriage of such commodities;
(5) Class rates means the rate fixed for a class of commodity in the classification;
(6) Commissioner means the Chief Commissioner of Railway Safety or the Commissioner of Railway Safety appointed under section 5;
(7) Commodity means a specific item of goods;
(8) consignee means the person named as consignee in a railway receipt;
(9) consignment mean goods entrusted to a railway administration for carriage;
(10) consignor means the person named in a railway receipt as consignor, by whom or non whose behalf goods covered by the railway receipt are entrusted to a railway administration for carriage;
(11) demurrage means the charge levied for the detention of any rolling stock after the expiry of free time, if any, allowed for such detention;
(12) endorsee means the person in whose favour an endorsement is made, and in the case of successive endorsements, the person in whose favour the last endorsement is made;
(13) endorsement means the singing by the consignee or the endorsee after adding a direction on a railway receipt to pass the property in the goods mentioned in such receipt to a specified person;
(14) ferry means the charge levied for the carriage of passengers;
(15) ferry includes a bridge of boats, pontoons or rafts, a swing bridge, a fly-bridge and a temporary bridge and the approaches to, and landing places of , a ferry;
(16) forwarding note means the document executed under section 64;
(17) freight means the charge levied for the carriage of goods including transshipment charges, if any;
(18) General Manager means the General Manager of a Zonal Railway appointed under section 4;
(19) goods includes-
(i) containers, pallets or similar articles of transport used to consolidate goods; and
(20) Government railway means a railway owned by the central Government;
(21) in transit , in relation to the carriage of goods by railway, means the period between the commencement and the termination of transit of such goods, and unless otherwise previously determined-
(a) transit commences as soon as the railway receipt is issued or the consignment is loaded, whichever is earlier;
(b) transit terminates on the expiry of the free time allowed for unloading of consignment from any rolling stick and where such unloading has been completed within such free time, transit terminates on the expiry of the free time allowed, for the removal of the goods from the railway premises;
(22) level crossing means an inter-section of a road with lines of rails at the same level;
(23) luggage means the goods of a passenger either carried by him in his chafge or entrusted to a railway administration for carriage;
(24) lump sum rate means the rate mutually agreed upon between a railway administration and a consignor for the carriage of goods and for any service in relation to such carriage;
(25) non-Government railway means a railway other than a Government railway;
(26) notification means a notification published in the Official Gazette;
(27) parcel means goods entrusted to a railway administration for carriage by a passenger or a parcel train;
(28) pass means an authority given by the Central Government or a railway administration to a person allowing him to travel as a passenger, but does not include a ticket;
(29) passenger means a person traveling with a valid pass or ticket;
(30) prescribed means prescribed by rules made under this Act;
(31) railway means a railway, or any portion or a railway, for the public carriage of passengers or goods, and includes-
(a) all lands within the fences or other boundary marks indicating the limits of the land appurtenant to a railway;
(b) all lines of rails, sidings, or yards, or branches used for the purposes of, or in connection with, a railway;
(c) all electric traction equipments, power supply and distribution installations used for the purposes of, or in connection with, a railway;
(d) all rolling stock, stations, officers warehoused, wharves, workshops, manufactories, fixed plant and machinery, road and streets, running rooms, rest housed, institutes, hospitals, water works and water supply installations staff dwellings and any other works constructed for the purpose of, or in connection with, railway;
(e) all vehicles which are used on any road for the purposes of traffic of a railway and owned, hired or worked by a railway; and
(f) all ferries, ships, boats and rafts which are used on any canal, river, lake or other navigable inland waters for the purposes of the traffic of a railway and owned, hired or worked by a railway administration,
but does not include-
(i) a tramway wholly within a municipal area; and
(ii) lines of rails built in any exhibition ground, fair, park or any other place solely for the purpose of recreation;
(32) $railway administration, in relation to-
(a) a Government railway, means the General Manager of a Zonal Railway; and
(b) a non-Government railway , means the person who is the owner or lessee of the railway or the person working the railway under an agreement;
(33) railway receipt means the receipt issued under section 65;
(34) railway servant means any person employed by the Central Government or by a railway administration in connection with the service or a railway;
(35) rate includes any fare, freight or any other charge for the carriage of any passenger or goods;
(36) regulations means the regulations made by the Railway rates Tribunal under this Act;
(37) rolling stock includes locomotives, lenders, carriages, wagons, rail-cars, containers, trucks, trolleys and vehicles of all kinds moving on rails;
(38) station to station rate means a special reduced rate applicable to a specific commodity booked between specified stations;
(39) traffic includes rolling stock of every description, as well as passengers and goods;
(40) Tribunal means the Railway Rates Tribunal constituted under section 33;
(41) wharfage means the charge levied on goods for not removing them from the railway after the expiry of the free time for such removal;
(42) Zonal Railway means a Zonal Railway constituted under section 3.
3. Zonal Railways.- (1) The Central Government may, for the purpose of the efficient administration of the Government railways, by notification, constitute such railways into as many Zonal Railways as it may deem fir and specify in such notification the names and headquarters of such Zonal Railways and the areas in respect of which they shall exercise jurisdiction.
(2)The Zonal Railway existing immediately before the commencement of this Act shall be deemed to be Zonal Railways constituted under sub-section (1).
(3) The Central Government may, be notification, declare any unit of the railways engaged in research, development, designing construction or production of rolling stock, its parts or other equipment used on a railway, to be a Zonal Railway.
(4) The Central Government may, by notification, abolish any Zonal Railway or constitute any new Zonal Railway out of any existing Zonal Railway or Zonal Railways, Change the name or headquarters or any Zonal Railway or determine the areas in respect of which a Zonal Railway shall exercise jurisdiction.
4. Appointment of General Manager.- (1) The Central Government shall, by notification, appoint a person to be the General Manager of a Zonal Railway.
(2) The General superintendence and control of a Zonal Railway shall vest in the General Manager.
5. Appointment of Chief Commissioner of Railway Safety and Commissioners of Railway Safety.- The Central Government may appoint a person to be the Chief Commissioner of Railway Safety and such other persons as it may consider necessary to be the Commissioners of Railway Safety.
6. Duties of Commissioner.- The Commissioner shall-
(a) inspect any railway with a view to determine whether it is fit to be opened for the public carriage of passengers and report thereon to the Central Government as required by or under this Act;
(b) make such periodical or other inspections of any railway or of any rolling stock used thereon as the Central Government may direct;
(c) make an inquiry under this Act into the cause of any accident on a railway; and
(d) discharge such other duties as are conferred on him by or under this Act.
7. Powers of Commissioner.- Subject to the control of the Central Government, the Commissioner, whenever it is necessary so to do for any of the purposes of this Act, may-
(a) enter upon and inspect any railway or any rolling stock used thereon;
(b) by order in writing addressed to a railway administration, require the attendance before him of any railway servant and to require answers or returns to such inquiries as he thinks fit to make from such railway servant or from the railway administration; and
(c) require the production of any book, document or material object belonging to or in the possession or control of any railway administration which appears to him to be necessary to inspect.
8. Commissioner to be public servant.- The Commissioner shall be deemed to be a public servant within the meaning of section 21 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).
9. Facilities to be afforded to Commissioners.- A railway administration shall afford to the Commissioner all reasonable facilities for the discharge of the duties or for the exercise of the powers imposed or conferred on him by or under this Act.
10. Annual report of Commissioners.- The Chief Commissioners of Railway Safety shall prepare in each financial year an annual report giving a full account of the activities of the Commissioners during the financial year immediately preceding the financial year in which such report is prepared and forward, before such date as may be specified by the Central Government, copies thereof to the Central Government, and that Government shall cause that reports to be laid, as soon as may be, after its receipt before each House of Parliament.
CHAPTER IV-CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE OF WORKS
11. Power of railway administrations of execute all necessary works.- Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force, but subject to the provisions of this Act and the provisions of any law for the acquisition of land for a public purpose or for companies, and subject also, in the case of a non-Government Railway, to the provisions of any contract between the non-Government railway and the Central Government, a railway administration may, for the purposes of constructing or maintaining a railway-
(a) make or construct in upon, across, under or over any lands, or any streets, hills, valleys, roads, railway, tramways, or any rivers, canals, brooks, streams or other waters, or any drains, water-pipes, gas-pipes, oil-pipes, sewers, electric supply limes, or telegraph lines, such temporary or permanent inclined-planes, bridges, tunnels, culverts, embankments, aquaducts, roads, lines of railways, passages, conduits, drains, piers, cuttings and fences, in take wells, tube wells, dams, river training and protection works as it thinks proper;
(b) alter the course of any rivers, brooks, streams or other water courses, for the purpose of constructing and maintaining tunnels, bridges, passages or other works over or under them and divert or alter either temporarily or permanently, the course of any river, brooks, steams or other water courses or any roads, streets or ways, or raise or sink the level thereof, in order to carry them more conveniently over or under or by the side of the railway;
(c) make drains or conduits into, through or under any lands adjoining the railway for the purpose of conveying water from or to the railway;
(d) erect and construct such houses, warehouses, offices and other buildings, and such yards, stations, wharves, engines, machinery apparatus and other works and conveniences as the railway administration thinks proper;
(e) alter, repair or discontinue such buildings, works and conveniences as aforesaid or any of them and substitute others in their stead;
(f) erect, operate, maintain or repair any telegraph and telephone lines in connection with the working of the railway;
(g) erect, operate, maintain or repair any electric traction equipment, power supply and distribution installation in connection with the working of the railway; and
(h) do all other acts necessary for making, maintaining altering or repairing and using the railway.
12. Power to alter the position of pipe, supply line, drain or sewer, etc.- (1) A railway administration may, for the purpose of exercising the powers conferred on it by this Act, alter the position of any pipe for the supply of gas, water, oil or compressed air, or the position of any electric supply line, drain or sewer:
Provided that before altering the position of any such pipe, electric supply line drain or sewer, the railway administration shall give a notice indicating the time at which the work of such alternation shall commence, to the local authority or other person having control over the pipe, electric supply line, drain or sewer.
(2) The railway administration shall execute the work referred to in sub-section (1) to the reasonable satisfaction of the local authority or the person receiving the notice under the proviso to sub-section (1).
13. Protection for Government Property.- Nothing in sections 11 and 12 shall authorize-
(a) a railway administration of the Government railway to do any thing on or to any works, lands or buildings vested in, or in the possession of, a State Government without the consent of that Government; and
(b) a railway administration of a non-Government railway to do anything on or to any works, lands or buildings vested in, or in the possession of, the Central Government or a State Government, without the consent of the Government concerned.
14. Temporary entry upon land to remove obstruction, to repair or to prevent accident.- (1) Where in the opinion of a railway administration-
(a) there is imminent danger that any tree, post or structure may fall on the railway so as to obstruct the movement of a rolling stock; or
(b) any tree, post, structure or light obstructs the view of any signal provided for movement of rolling stock; or
(c) any tree, post or structure obstructs any telephone or telegraph line maintained by it,
it may take such steps as may be necessary to avert such danger or remove such obstruction and submit a report thereof to the Central Government in such manner and within such time as may be prescribed.
(2) Where in the opinion of a railway administration-
(a) a slip or accident has occurred; or
(b) there is apprehension of any slip or accident to any cutting, embankment or other work on a railway,
it may enter upon any lands adjoining the railway and do all such works as may be necessary for the purpose of repairing or preventing such slip or accident and submit a report thereof to the Central Government in such manner and within such time as may be prescribed.
(3) The Central Government may, after considering the report under sub-section (1) or sub-section(2), in the interest of public safety, by order, direct the railway administration that further action under sub-section (2) shall be stopped or the same shall be subject to such conditions as may be specified in that order.
15. Payment of amount for damage or loss.- (1) No suit shall lie against a railway administration to recover any amount for any damage or loss caused in the exercise of the powers conferred by any of the foregoing provisions of this Chapter.
(2) A railway administration shall pay or tender payment for any damage or loss caused in the exercise of the powers conferred by any of the foregoing provisions of this Chapter, and in case of a dispute as to the sufficiency of any amount so paid or tendered or as to the persons entitled to receive the amount, it shall immediately refer the dispute for the decision of the District Judge of the district and his decision thereon shall be final:
Provided that where the railway administration fails to make a reference within sixty days from the date of commencement of the dispute, the District Judge may, on an application made to him bay the person concerned, direct the railway administration to refer the dispute for his decision.
(3) The reference under sub-section (2) shall be treated as an appeal under section 96 of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) and shall be disposed of accordingly.
(4) Where any amount has been paid as required by sub-section (2), the railway administration shall, notwithstanding anything in any other law for the time being in force, be discharged from all liabilities to any person whatsoever in respect of any amount so paid.
16. Accommodation works.- (1) A railway administration shall make and maintain the following works for the accommodation of the owners and occupiers of lands adjoining the railway, namely:-
(a) such crossings, bridges, culverts and passages over, under or by the sides of, or leading to or from, the railway as may, in the opinion of the State Government, be necessary for the purpose of making good any interruptions caused by the railway to the use of the lands through which the railway is made; and
(b) all necessary bridges, tunnels, culverts, drains, water sources of other passages, over, under or by the sides of the railway, of such dimensions as will, in the opinion of the State Government, be sufficient at all times to convey water as freely from or to the lands laying near or affected by the railway as it was before the making of the railway or as nearly as possible.
(2) Subject to the other provisions of this Act, the works specified in sub-section (1) shall be made at the cost of the railway administration during or immediately after the laying out or formation of the railway over the lands traversed and in such a manner as to cause as little damage or inconvenience as possible to persons interested in the lands or affected by the works:
(a) a railway administration shall not be required to make any accommodation works in such a manner as would prevent or obstruct the working or using of the railway, or to make any accommodation works with respect to which the owners or occupiers of the lands have been paid compensation in consideration of their not requiring the said works to be made;
(b) save as hereinafter, in this Chapter, provided, no railway administration shall be liable to execute any further or additional accommodation works for the use of the owners or occupiers of the lands after the expiration of tem years from the date on which the railway passing through the lands was first opened for public traffic;
(c) where a railway administration has provided suitable accommodation work for the crossing of a road or stream and the road or stream is afterwards diverted by the act or neglect of the person having the control thereof, the railway administration shall not be compelled to provide any other accommodation work for the crossing of such road or stream.
(3) The State Government may, specify a date for the commencement of any work to be executed under sub-section (1) and, if within three months next after that date, the railway administration fails to commence the work or having commenced it, fails to proceed diligently to execute it, the Central Government shall, on such failure being brought to its notice by the State Government, issue such directions to the railway administration as it thinks fit.
Explanation.- For the purposes of this section, the expression lands shall include public roads.
17. Power of owner, occupier, State Government or local authority to cause additional accommodation works to be made.- (1)If an owner or occupier of any land affected by a railway considers the works made under section 16 to be insufficient for the use of the land, or if the State Government or a local authority desires to construct a public road or other work across, under or over a railway, such owner or occupier, or as the case may be, the State Government or the local authority, may at any time, require the railway administration to make at the expense of the owner or occupier or of the State Government of the local authority, as the case may be, such further accommodation works as are considered necessary and are agreed to by the railway administration.
(2) The accommodation works made under sub-section (1) shall be maintained at the cost of the owner or occupier of the land, the State Government or the local authority, at whose request the works were made.
(3) In the case of any difference of opinion between the railway administration and the owner or occupier, the State Government or the local authority, as the case may be, in relation to-
(i) the necessity of such further accommodation works; or
(ii) the expenses to be incurred on the construction of such further accommodation works; or
(iii) the quantum of expenses on the maintenance of such further accommodation works, it shall be referred to the Central Government whose decision thereon shall be final.
18. Fences, gates and bars.- The Central Government may, within such time as may be specified by it or within such further time, as it may grant, require that-
(a) boundary makes or fences be provided or renewed by a railway administration for a railway or any part thereof and for roads constructed in connection therewith;
(b) suitable gates, chains, bars, stiles or hand-rails be erected or renewed by a railway administration at level crossings;
(c) persons be employed by a railway administration to open and shut gates, chains or bars.
19. Over-bridges and under-bridges.- (1) Where a railway administration has constructed lines of rails across a public road at the same level, the State Government or the local authority maintaining the road, may, at any time, in the interest of public safety, require the railway administration to take the road either under or over the railway by means of a bridge or arch with convenient ascents and descents and other convenient approaches, instead of crossing the road on the level, or to execute such other works as may, in the circumstances of the case, appear to the State Government or the local authority maintaining the road to be best adapted for removing or diminishing the danger arising from the level crossing.
(2) The railway administration may require the State Government or the local authority, as the case may be, as a condition of executing any work under sub-section (1),to undertake to pay the whole of the cost of the work and the expense of maintaining the work, of the railway administration or such proportion of the cost and expenses as the Central Government considers just and reasonable.
(3) In the case of any difference of opinion between the railway administration and the State Government or the local authority, as the case may be, over any of the matters mentioned in sub-section (1), it shall be referred to the Central Government, Whose decision thereon shall be final.
20. Power of Central Government to give directions for safety.- Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law, the Central Government may, if it is of the opinion that any work undertaken or may be undertaken is likely to alter or impede the natural course of water flow or cause an increase in the volume of such flow endangering any cutting, embankment or other work on a railway, issue directions in writing to any person, officer or authority responsible for such work to close, regulate or prohibit that work.
CHAPTER V-OPENING OF RAILWAYS
21. Sanction of the Central Government of the Opening of railway.- No railway shall be opened for the public carriage of passengers until the Central Government has, by order, sanctioned the opening thereof for the purpose.
22. Formalities to be complied with before giving sanction to the opening of a railway.- (1) The Central Government shall, before giving its sanction to the opening of a railway under section 21, obtain a report from the Commissioner that-
(a) he has made a careful inspection of the railway and the rolling stock that may be used thereon;
(b) the moving and fixed dimensions as laid down by the Central Government have not been infringed;
(c) the structure of lines of rails, strength of bridges, general structural character of the works and the size of, and maximum gross load upon, the axles of any rolling stock, comply with the requirements laid down by the Central Government; and
(d) in his opinion, the railway can be opened for the public carriage of passengers without any danger to the public using it.
(2) If the commissioner is of the opinion that the railway cannot be opened without any danger to the public using it, he shall, in his report, state the grounds therefore, as also the requirements which, in his opinion, are to be complied with before sanction is given by the Central Government.
(3) The Central Government after considering the report of the Commissioners, may sanction the opening of a railway under section 21 as such or subject to such conditions as may be considered necessary by it for the safety of the public.
23. Sections 21 and 22 to apply to the opening of certain works.- The provisions of sections 21 and 22 shall apply to the opening of the following works if they form part of , or are directly connected with,. a railway used for the public carriage of passengers and have been constructed subsequent to the giving of a report by the Commissioners under section 22, namely:-
(a) opening of additional lines of railway and deviation lines;
(b) opening of stations, junctions and level crossings;
(c) re-modelling of yards and re-building of bridges;
(d) introduction of electric traction; and
(e) any alteration or reconstruction materially affecting the structural character of any work to which the provisions of sections 21 and 22 apply or are extended by this section.
24. Temporary suspension of traffic.- When an accident has occurred on a railway resulting in a temporary suspension of traffic, and either the original lines of rails and works have been restored to their original standard or a temporary diversion has been laid of the purpose of restoring communication, the original lines of rails and works so restored, or the temporary diversion, as the case may be, may, without prior inspection by the Commissioner, be opened for the public carriage of passengers, subject to the following conditions, namely:-
(a) the railway servant incharge of the works undertaken by reason of the accident has certified in writing that the opening of the restored lines of rails and works, or of the temporary diversion will not in his opening be attended with danger to the public; and
(b) a notice of the opening of the lines of rails and works or the diversion shall be sent immediately to the Commissioner.
25. Power to close railway opened for the public carriage of passengers.- Where, after the inspection of any railway opened and used for the public carriage of passengers or any rolling stock used thereon, the Commissioner is of the opinion that the use of the railway or of any rolling stock will be attended with danger to the public using it, the Commissioner shall send a report to the Central Government who may thereupon direct that-
(i) the railway be close for the public carriage of passengers; or
(ii) the use of the rolling stock be discontinued; or
(iii) the railway or the rolling stock may be used for the public carriage of passengers subject such conditions as it may consider necessary for the safety of the public.
26. Re-opening of closed railway.- When the Central Government has, under section 25, directed the closure of a railway or the discontinuance of the use of any rolling stock-
(a) the railway shall not be re-opened for the public carriage of passengers until it has been inspected by the Commissioner and its re-opening is sanctioned in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter; and
(b) the rolling stock shall not be used until it has been inspected by the Commissioner and its re-use is sanctioned in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter.
27. Use of rolling stock.- A railway administration may use such rolling stock as it may consider necessary for the construction, operation and working of railway.
Provided that before using any rolling stock of a design or type different from that already running on any section of the railway, the previous sanction of the Central Government shall be obtained for such use:
Provided further that before giving any such sanction, the Central Government shall obtain a report from the Commissioner that he has made a careful inspection of the rolling stock and, in his opinion, such rolling stock can be used.
28. Delegation of powers.- The Central Government may, by notification, direct that any of its powers or functions under this Chapter, except section 29, or the rules made thereunder shall, in relation to such matters and subject to such conditions, if any, as may be specified in the notification, be exercised or discharged also by a Commissioner.
29. Power to make rules in respect of matters in this Chapter.- (1) The Central Government may, by notification, make rules to carry out the purposes of this Chapter.
(2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing powr, such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:-
(a) the duties of a railway administration and the commissioner in regard to the opening of a railway for the public carriage of passengers;
(b) the arrangements to be made for and the formalities to be complied with before opening a railway for the public carriage of passengers;
(c) for regulating the mode in which, and the speed at which rolling stock used on railways is to be moved or propelled; and
(d) the cases in which and the extent to which the procedure provided in this Chapter may be dispensed with.
CHAPTER VI-FIXATION OF RATES
30. Power to fix rates.- (1) The Central Government may, from time to time, by general or special order fix, for the carriage or passengers and goods, rates for the whole or any part of the railway and different rates may be fixed for different classes of goods and specify in such order the conditions subject to which such rates shall apply.
(2) The Central Government may, by a like order, fix the rates of any other charges incidental to or connected with such carriage including demurrage and wharfage for the whole or any part of the railway and specify in the order the conditions subject to which such rates shall apply.
31. Power to classify commodities or alter rates.- The Central Government shall have power to-
(a) classify or re-classify any commodity for the purpose of determining the rates to be charged for the carriage of such commodities; and
(b) increase or reduce the class rates and other charges.
32. Power of railway administration to charge certain rates.- Notwithstanding anything contained in this Chapter, a railway administration may, in respect of the carriage of any commodity and subject to such conditions as may be specified,-
(a) quota a station to station rate;
(b) increase or reduce or cancel, after due notice in the manner determined by the Central Government, a station to station to rate, not being a station to station rate introduced in compliance with an order made by the Tribunal;
(c) withdraw, alter or amend the conditions attached to a station to station rate other than conditions introduced in compliance with an order made by the Tribunal; and
(d) charge any lump sum rate
CHAPTER VII-RAILWAY RATES TRIBUNAL
33. Constitution of the Railway Rates Tribunal.- (1) There shall be a Tribunal, to be called the Railway Rates Tribunal, for the purpose of discharging the functions specified in this Chapter.
(2) The Tribunal shall consist of a Chairman and two other members to be appointed by the Central Government.
(3) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as the Chairman of the Tribunal unless he is, or has been, a judge of the Supreme Court or of a High Court and of the other two members, one shall be a person, who, in the opinion of the Central Government, has special knowledge of the commercial, industrial or economic conditions of the country, and the other shall be a person, who in the opinion of the Central government, has special Knowledge and experience of the commercial working of the railways.
(4) The Chairman and the other members of the Tribunal shall hold office for such period, not exceeding five years, as may be prescribed.
(5) In case Chairman or any other member is, by infirmity or otherwise, rendered incapable of carrying out his duties or is absent on leave or otherwise in circumstances not involving the vacation of his office, the Central Government may appoint another person to act in his palace during his absence .
(6) A person who holds office as the Chairman or other member of the Tribunal shall, on the expiration of the term of his office (not being an office to fill a casual vacancy), be ineligible for re-appointment to that office.
(7) Subject to the provisions of sub-sections (5) and (6), the Chairman and other members of the Tribunal shall hold office on such terms and conditions as may be prescribed.
(8) No act or proceeding of the Tribunal shall be invalidated merely by reason of -
(a) any vacancy in, or any defect in the constitution of, the Tribunal; or
(b) any defect in the appointment of a person acting as a Chairman or other member of the Tribunal.
34. Staff of the Tribunal.- (1) The Tribunal may, with the previous approval of the Central Government, appoint such officers and employees as it considers necessary for the efficient discharge of its functions under this Chapter.
(2) The terms and conditions of service of the officers and employees of the Tribunal shall be such as may be determined by regulations.
35. Sittings of the Tribunal.- The Tribunal may sit at such place or places as it may find convenient for the transaction of its business.
36. Complaints against a railway administration.- Any complaint that a railway administration-
(a) is contravening the provisions of section 70; or
(b) is charging for the carriage of any commodity between two stations at a rate which is unreasonable; or
(c) is levying any other charge which is unreasonable,
may be made to the Tribunal, and the Tribunal shall hear and decide any such complaint in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter.
37. Matters not within the jurisdiction of the Tribunal.- Nothing in this Chapter shall confer jurisdiction on the Tribunal in respect of-
(a) classification or re-classification of any commodity;
(b) fixation of wharfage and demurrage charges (including conditions attached to such charges)
(c) fixation of fares levied for the carriage of passengers and freight levied for the carriage of luggage, parcels, railway material and military traffic; and
(d) fixation of lump sum rates.
38. Power of the Tribunal.- (1) The Tribunal shall have the powers of a civil court under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) for the purposes of taking evidence on oath, enforcing the attendance of witnesses, compelling the discovery and production of documents, issuing commissioners for the examination of witnesses and of review and shall be deemed to be a civil court for all the purposes of section 195 and Chapter XXXV of the Code of Criminal procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974 ) and any reference in such section or Chapter to the presiding officer of a court shall be deemed to include a reference to the Chairman of the Tribunal.
(2) The Tribunal shall also have power to pass such interim and final orders as the circumstances may require, including orders for the payment of costs.
39. Reference to the Tribunal.- Notwithstanding anything contained on section 37, the Central Government may make a reference to the Tribunal in respect of any of the matter specified in that section and where any such reference is made in respect of any such matter, the Tribunal shall make an inquiry into that matter and submit its report thereon to the Central Government.
40. Assistance by the Central Government.- (1) The Central Government shall give to the Tribunal such assistance as it may require and shall also place at its disposal any information in the possession of the Central Government which that Government may think relevant to any matter before the Tribunal.
(2) Any person duly authorized in this behalf by the Central Government shall be entitled to appear and be heard in any proceedings before the Tribunal.
41. Burden of proof, etc.- In the case of any complaint under clause (a) of section 36,-
(a) whenever it is shown that a railway administration charges one trader or class of traders or the traders in any local area, lower rates for the same or similar goods or lower charges for the same or similar service than it charges to other traders in any other local area, the burden of providing that such lower rate or charge does not amount ot an undue preference, shall lie on the railway administration;
(b) in deciding whether a lower rate or charge does not amount to an undue preference, the Tribunal may, in addition to any other considerations affecting the case, take into consideration whether such lower rate or charge is necessary in the interests of the public.
42. Decision, etc., of the Tribunal.- The decisions or orders of the Tribunal shall be by a majority of the members sitting and shall be final
43. Bar of jurisdiction of courts.- No suit shall be instituted or proceeding taken in respect of any matter which the Tribunal is empowered to deal with, or decide, under this Chapter.
44. Relief$s which the Tribunal may grant.- In the case of any complaint made under clause (b) or clause (c) of section 36, the Tribunal may-
(i) fix such rate or charge as it considers reasonable from any date as it may deem proper, not being a date earlier to the date of the filing of the complaint;
(ii) direct a refund of amount, if any, as being the excess of the rate or charge fixed by the Tribunal under clause (i).
45. Revision of decisions given by the Tribunal.- Where a Railway Administration considers that since the date of decision by the Tribunal, there has been a material change in the circumstances on which it was base, it may, after the expiry of none year from such date, make an application to the Tribunal and the Tribunal may, after making such inquiry as it considers necessary, vary or revoke the decision.
46. Execution of decision or orders of the Tribunal.- The Tribunal may transmit any decision or order made by it to a civil court having local jurisdiction and such civil court shall execute the decision or order as of it were a decree made by that court.
47. Report of the Central Government.- The Tribunal shall present annually a report to the Central Government of all its proceedings under this Chapter.
48. Power of the Tribunal to make regulations.- (1) The Tribunal may, with the previous approval of the Central Government, make regulations consistent with this Act and rules generally to regulate its procedure for the effective discharge of its functions under this Chapter.
(2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such regulations may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:-
(a) the terms and conditions of service of the officers and employees of the Tribunal;
(b) the award of costs by the Tribunal in any proceedings before it;
(c) the reference of any question to a member or to an officer of the Tribunal or any other person appointed by the Tribunal, for report after holding a local inquiry;
(d) the right of audience before the Tribunal, provided that any party shall be entitled to be heard in person, or by a representative duly authorized in writhing, or by a legal practitioner;
(e) the disposal by the Tribunal of any proceedings before it, notwithstanding that in the course thereof there has been a change in the persons sitting as members of the Tribunal;
(f) a scale of fees for and in connection with the proceedings before the Tribunal.
CHAPTER VIII-CARRIAGE OF PASSENGERS
49. Exhibition of certain timings and Tables of fares at stations.- (1) Every railway administration shall cause to be pasted in a conspicuous and accessible place at every station in Hindi and English and also in the regional language commonly in use in the area where the station is situated,-
(i) a table of times of arrival and departure of trains which carry passengers and stop at that station, and
(ii) list of fares from such station to such other stations as it may consider necessary .
(2) At every station where tickets are issued to passengers, a copy of the time table in force shall be kept in the office of the station master.
50. Supply of tickets on payment of fare.- (1) Any person desirous of traveling on a railway shall, upon payment of the fare, be supplied with a ticket by a railway servant or an agent authorized in this behalf and such ticket shall contain the following particulars, namely:-
(i) the date of issue;
(ii) the class of carriage;
(iii) the place from and the place to which it is issued; and
(iv) the amount of the fare.
(2) Every railway administration shall display the hours during which booking window at a station shall be kept open for the issue of tickets to passengers.
(3) The particulars required to be specified on a ticket under clauses (ii) and (iii) of sub-section (1) shall,-
(a) if it is for the lowest class of carriage, be set forth in Hindi, English and the regional language commonly in use at the place of issue of the ticket; and
(b) if it is for any other class of carriage, be set forth in Hindi and English:
Provided that where it is not feasible to specify such particulars in any such language due to mechanization or any other reason, the Central Government may exempt such particulars being specified in that language.
51. Provision for case in which ticket is issued for class or train not having accommodation for additional passengers.- A ticket shall be deemed to have been issued subject to the condition of availability of accommodation in the class of carriage and the train for which the ticket is issued.
(2) If no accommodation is available in the class of carriage for which a ticket is issued, and the holder thereof travels in a carriage of a lower class, he shall, on returning such ticket, be entitled to a refund of the difference between the fare paid by him and the fare payable for the class of carriage in which he travels.
52. Cancellation of ticket and refund.- If a ticket is returned for cancellation, the railway administration shall cancel the same and refund such amount as may be prescribed.
53. Prohibition against transfer of certain tickets.- A ticket issued in the name of a person shall be used only by that person:
Provided that nothing contained in this section shall prevent mutual transfer of a seat or berth by passengers traveling by the same train:
Provided further that a railway servant authority in this behalf may permit change of name of a passenger having reserved a seat or berth subject to such circumstances as may be prescribed.
54. Exhibition and surrender of passes and tickets.- Every passenger shall, on demand by any railway servant authorized in this behalf, present his pass or ticket to such railway servant for examination during the journey or at the end of the journey and surrender such ticket-
(a) at the end of the journey, or
(b) if such ticket is issued for a specified period, on the expiration of such period.
55. Prohibition against traveling without pass or ticket.- (1) No person shall enter or remain in any carriage on a railway for the purpose of traveling therein as a passenger unless he has with him a proper pass or ticket or obtained permission of a railway servant authorized in this behalf for such travel.
(2) A person obtaining permission under sub-section(1) shall ordinarily get a certificate from the railway servant referred to in that sub-section that he has been permitted to travel in such carriage on condition that he subsequently pays the fare payable for the distance to be traveled.
56. Power to refuse to carry persons suffering from infectious or contagious diseases.- (1) A person suffering form such infectious or contagious diseases, as may be prescribed, shall not enter or remain in any carriage on a railway or travel in a train without the permission of a railway servant authorized in this behalf.
(2) The railway servant giving permission under sub-section (1), shall arrange for the separation of the person suffering from such disease form other persons in the train and such person shall be carried in the train subject to such other conditions as may be prescribed.
(3) Any person who enters or remains in any carriage or travels in a train without permission as required under sub-section (1) or in contravention of any condition prescribed under sub-section (2), such person and a person accompanying him shall be liable to the forfeiture of their passes of tickets and removal from railway by any railway servant .
57. Maximum number of passengers for each compartment.- Subject to the approval of the Central Government, every railway administration shall fix the maximum number of passengers which may be carried in each compartment of every description of carriage, and shall exhibit the number so fixed in a conspicuous manner inside or outside each compartment in Hindi, English and also in one or more of the regional languages commonly in use in the areas served by the railway.
58. Earmarking of compartment, etc., for ladies.- Every railway administration shall, in every train carrying passengers, earmark for the exclusive use of females, one compartment or such number of berths or seats, as the railway administration may think fit.
59. Communications between passengers and railway servant in charge of train.- A railway administration shall provide and maintain in every train carrying passengers, such efficient means of communication between the passengers and the railway servant in charge of the train as may be approved by the Central Government:
Provided that where the railway administration is satisfied that the means of communication provided in a train are being misused, it may cause such means to be disconnected in that train for such period as it thinks fit:
Provided further that the Central Government may specify the circumstances under which a railway administration may be exempted from providing such means of communication in any train.
60. Power to make rules in respect of matters in this Chapter.- (1) The Central Government may, by notification, make rules to carry out the purposes of this Chapter.
(2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:-
(a) the convenience and accommodation (including the reservation of seats or berths in trains) to passengers;
(b) the amount of refund for the cancellation of a ticket;
(c) the circumstances under which change of names of passengers, having reserved seats or berths, may be permitted;
(d) the carriage of luggage and the conditions subject to which luggage may be kept in the cloak rooms at the stations;
(e) diseases which are infectious or contagious;
(f) the conditions subject to which a railway administration may carry passengers suffering from infectious or contagious diseases and the manner in which carriages used by such passengers may be disinfected;
(g) generally, for regulating the traveling upon, and the use, working and management of the railways.
(3) Any rule made under this section may provide that a contravention thereof shall be punishable with fine which shall not exceed five hundred rupees.
(4) Every railway administration shall keep at every station on its railway a copy of all the rules made under this section and shall also allow any person to insect it free of charge.